3D printing technologies in the production of building materials

3D printing technologies in the production of building materials

3D printing is actively used in various industries, and construction is no exception. This technology significantly simplifies and accelerates the building process. Let's explore the advantages that 3D printing brings to the construction industry and the prospects it opens for the production of building materials.

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Advantages of 3D Printing in Construction

Robotic printer

The main advantages of using 3D printing in building construction are:

  • High construction speed. A 3D printer allows for almost automated building, which saves significant time.
  • Reduction in waste. The technology essentially involves layer-by-layer growing of the structure, using exactly the necessary amount of material without waste.
  • The ability to create complex architectural forms, which are difficult or impossible to implement with traditional methods.
  • Increased precision and quality of construction due to automation of the process.

Technologies for 3D Printing of Construction Structures

Future office, UAE

There are several main technologies of 3D printing in construction:

  • Extrusion printing. The most common technology, in which the material (concrete, gypsum, polymers) is fed through a nozzle and layered to form a structure.
  • Jet 3D printing. Implements the principle of layer-by-layer spraying of binding compounds and sand with a printing head.
  • Stereolithography. Uses liquid photopolymers that solidify under laser action. Allows creating highly detailed structures.

A promising direction is contour 3D printing of houses, where only the load-bearing contour is printed, and the internal space is filled with traditional materials.

Materials for 3D Printing in Construction

Two-story mansion in Beckum, Germany

The following materials are actively used in 3D printing of houses:

  • Concrete. The most common, allows creating a sturdy structure;
  • Gypsum and gypsum mixes, characterized by fast setting, which is important in 3D printing;
  • Thermoplastics – polylactic acid, polycaprolactone. These are biodegradable and eco-friendly materials, promising for printing temporary structures.

There are other materials, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polyester resins, wood-polymer composites, etc.

Prospects for the Development of 3D Printing in Building Material Production


It is safe to say that in the next decade, 3D printing will become an important part of the construction industry. This technology opens up wide prospects for the production of innovative building materials, allowing resource and time savings during building construction.

Key development directions of 3D printing in building material production include:

  • Developing new sturdy and long-lasting composite materials optimized for 3D printing.
  • Creating mobile 3D printers capable of printing structures right on the construction site.
  • Automating the 3D printing process at all stages – from design to construction.
  • Expanding application areas – from load-bearing structures to finishing, engineering communications, roads.

We will surely hear more about unique architectural projects printed using 3D technologies! This is indeed the construction of the future.